15. Bibliography

  1. Sheetal V. Kakkad. Address Translation and Storage Management for Persistent Object Stores . Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Texas at Austin, December 1997

    A common problem in software engineering is efficiently saving the state of application data structures to non-volatile storage between program executions. If this is accomplished using normal file systems, the programmer is forced to explicitly save the data to files as a stream of uninterpreted bytes, thereby losing both pointer semantics and object identity. A better approach is to use persistent object storage, a natural extension to virtual memory that allows heap data to be saved automatically to disk while maintaining the topology of data structures without any explicit programmer intervention.

    If persistent object stores are to replace the functionality of normal file systems, they must be able to address large volumes of data efficiently on standard hardware. High-performance address translation techniques are necessary and important for supporting large address spaces on stock hardware. We present pointer swizzling at page fault time (PS@PFT), a coarse-grained address translation scheme suitable for this purpose, and demonstrate it by building a persistent storage system for C++ called the Texas Persistent Store. We also discuss alternative approaches for portably incorporating fine-grained address translation in Texas for situations where coarse-grained swizzling alone is insufficient. As part of the performance results, we present a detailed analysis of various components of a coarse-grained address translation technique, including a comparison with overall I/O costs.

    Pointer swizzling requires run-time knowledge of in-memory object layouts to locate pointers in objects. We have developed and implemented Run-Time Type Description (RTTD) for this purpose; our implementation strategy is portable because it is based on a novel use of compiler-generated debugging information for extracting the necessary type description. RTTD is also useful for other applications such as data structure browsing, and advanced profiling and tracing.

    Another part of this research is a study of the interaction between systems similar to PS@PFT and operating systems, particularly regarding virtual memory management issues. We suggest areas where operating system implementations can be made more open to improve their performance and extensibility. Finally, we briefly discuss storage management issues, specifically log-structured storage, disk prefetching, and compressed in-memory storage, and provide directions for future research in this area.

  2. Paul R. Wilson and Sheetal V. Kakkad. Pointer Swizzling at Page Fault Time: Efficiently and Compatibly Supporting Huge Address Spaces on Standard Hardware. In International Workshop on Object Orientation in Operating Systems, pages 364-377, Paris, France, September 1992.

    Pointer swizzling at page fault time is a novel address translation mechanism that exploits conventional address translation hardware. It can support huge address spaces efficiently without long hardware addresses; such large address spaces are attractive for persistent object stores, distributed shared memories, and shared address space operating systems. This swizzling scheme can be used to provide data compatibility across machines with different word sizes, and even to provide binary code compatibility across machines with different hardware address sizes.

    Pointers are translated ("swizzled") from a long format to a shorter hardware-supported format at page fault time. No extra hardware is required, and no continual software overhead is incurred by presence checks or indirection of pointers. This pagewise technique exploits temporal and spatial locality in much the same way as a normal virtual memory; this gives it many desirable performance characteristics, especially given the trend toward larger main memories. It is easy to implement using common compilers and operating systems.

  3. Vivek Singhal, Sheetal Kakkad, and Paul Wilson. Texas: An Efficient, Portable Persistent Store. In Persistent Object Systems: Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Persistent Object Systems, pages 11-33, San Miniato, Italy, September 1992.

    Texas is a persistent storage system for C++, providing high performance while emphasizing simplicity, modularity and portability. A key component of the design is the use of pointer swizzling at page fault time, which exploits existing virtual memory features to implement large address spaces efficiently on stock hardware, with little or no change to existing compilers. Long pointers are used to implement an enormous address space, but are transparently converted to the hardware-supported pointer format when pages are loaded into virtual memory.

    Runtime type descriptors and slightly modified heap allocation routines support pagewise pointer swizzling by allowing objects and their pointer fields to be identified within pages. If compiler support for runtime type identification is not available, a simple preprocessor can be used to generate type descriptors.

    This address translation is largely independent of issues of data caching, sharing, and checkpointing; it employs operating systems' existing virtual memories for caching, and a simple and flexible logging system.

    Pagewise virtual memory protections are also used to detect writes for logging purposes, without requiring any changes to compiled code. This may degrade checkpointing performance for small transactions with poor locality of writes, but page diffing and sub-page logging promise to keep performance competitive with finer-grained checkpointing schemes.

    Texas presents a simple programming interface; an application creates persistent object by simply allocating them on the persistent heap. In addition, the implementation is relatively small, and is easy to incorporate into existing applications.

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